What is the Indian River Lagoon? Well, for starters it is not a river at all but rather a very long narrow bay. The Indian River has no current or headwaters and no rivers of any significance empty into it. Geographically speaking the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) System runs along forty percent of the East Coast of Florida. The Northern boundary of the system is Ponce de Leon Inlet just south of Daytona Beach. The Southern boundary of the system is 155 miles to the South near Palm Beach at Jupiter Inlet.
The Indian River is bounded on the East by a more or less continuous barrier island. The existing Western edge is not as easily defined. In places, the natural mangrove marshes extend some ways inland in other places development has limited this or drained these marshes all together. Along the lagoon’s entire north south length its width is typically 2 to 4 miles. Finally, the Indian River Lagoon System consists of really three distinct bodies of water (see map).
The 1st is the Indian River itself which runs continuously from just north of Titusville southward approximately 140 miles to Jupiter Inlet. The northern most part of the IRL is Mosquito Lagoon which runs from Ponce de Leon Inlet southward 20 miles and ending just north of the Space Shuttle Launch Complex. Haulover Canal an antebellum construction completed around 1853 connects Mosquito Lagoon to the Indian River. Lastly, there is the Banana River, which branches off from the Indian River just south of Satellite Beach and runs northeastward for 25 miles ending just south of the Space Shuttle Launch Complex
The Indian River Lagoon System is a waterway of national significance providing a home to more than 4,300 kinds of plants and animals. This includes 36 in endangered or threatened species. The diversity is especially rich for the species fish. There are over 700 species of fish found in the IRL with a unique mix of temperate and tropical climate species. The IRL also contains 20 percent of the mangrove forests remaining in the United States.
If one were to give characterize the Indian River Lagoon by any one particular attribute it would be shallowness. Most of the IRL consists of vast shallows known as flats. It is in these flats that the primary biological richness of the lagoon exists.
The flats are usually covered in seagrass in fact many times the term grass flat is often used to describe these shallows. The functions of the seagrass in the ecology of the IRL are many and important. Among other things seagrass provides food and shelter for many marine species as well as helping to maintain water clarity and control erosion.
In fact, the importance of the IRL grass flats is shown in the following statistic: almost all of Florida’s commercially important species spend part of their lives in the grass flats of the lagoon. Finally, the abundance or lack of seagrass can be used as a barometer of the health of a part of the IRL. Developed areas of the lagoon can be almost entirely devoid of seagrass.
The reasons for this lack of seagrass are primarily lack of water clarity due to excessive nutrients and sediments in runoff entering the lagoon
The Indian River offers opportunities for kayaing such as ecotouring, snorkeling and fishing. The important thing to decide is what you want to see and do, and to make sure you are using equipment from the best kayaking brands. First, no matter what you decide is your primary interest, remember that kayaking on the Indian River is going to consist primarily of traversing large areas of shallow water.
The shallow water means there many opportunities for getting out of the boat. The depth of the flats can be from inches to several feet and the bottom may be anywhere from hard sand to very thin sand with gelatinous mud underneath. So be aware that the depth of the water may not be the only factor in determining how easy it is to get back in your boat. A good kayak cart will also stand you in good stead when navigating these waters.
Consider also that constantly getting in and out of a sit inside kayak, can by the end of the day, leave a nice sampling of the bottom of the lagoon in your cockpit. It is for the above reasons that I recommend sit on top Kayaks for ease of egress at least on day trips.
Moving to another home can be stressful enough; you don’t need to add to that with worrying what and where your precious stuff is going and how it’s being handled!
Moving companies are great, for a fixed or variable price, they offer to lug around heavy and large objects like furniture and appliances to a new home or where you would want them transported. Their employees handle stuff like carrying, packaging, and sometimes even cleaning afterward.
Based on experience, plenty of customers have different reactions when asked about their national moving experience with companies. While most of them are happy and content, there was also a good number that had complaints or was unsatisfied so we asked why.
Learn more here: Planning a long distance move
• The price – Most complained that moving companies charge too much and that their service did not offer a good investment. Furthermore, it was sometimes a different price before and after the moving, where the weight changed hence the price increased.
• The time – When most movers promised a set time, customers revealed that some promises are meant to be broken, from hours to days to weeks, their stuff usually arrives later than expected and they had to adjust a lot waiting for their things to arrive.
• The handling – One of the worst things that can happen is for stuff to arrive broken, damaged, or missing. Sadly, it can happen too, which is why it is a must to have a trusted mover around.
Out of all the complaints we found, we have come to a conclusion that a good quality long distance mover must have the following traits:
• Trustworthy, honest and affordable pricing
• Dependable, prompt and punctual, safe delivery
• Qualified staff and personnel especially drivers and handlers
As an added bonus, it would be best that companies also have:
• A means of contact open 24 hours/day before, during, and after moving
• Bonus offers such as cleaning and packaging
• A valid document to be signed that reflects how diligent they should handle your things
Special thanks to www.activetransport.co.za for the information.
Make sanding blocks that are reusable. Cut six blocks from any 3/4″ plywood you have, for each sandpaper grit you regularly use.
If you are a novice woodworker or just want to know more, this is the perfect article to help you get started. Certain tips can help you master the art of the trade. Read on and learn lots more about this subject.
Related Reading: mobile miter saw stand
You should always test stain on a small area or on a wood scrap. This makes sure that you won’t run into any surprises.
Anytime that you are planning to stain wood, you should be sure to use a high-quality wood conditioner beforehand. Using a pre-conditioner will help you avoid blotches when staining. This is because the conditioners allow stains to penetrate evenly.
It is important that you have a realistic idea of your budget and what you can make with it. Many people are surprised at how much it costs to make some woodworking projects.
Select the proper wood for any project you do. When it comes to woodworking, some woods can not handle the stresses that other woods can. If you don’t know how each wood type reacts to what you’re trying to do, spend a bit of time learning about it.
Never use your hand to guide wood through a cut! Use a thin and long strip of wood instead. This will prevent you from loosing a finger or two, which would make working with wood very difficult.
For your own interest….
The use of androgen boost prescriptions has increased more and more in this centuries with illegal acquisitions shooting through the roof. The major concern is the health issues that follow the abuse of these steroids both at a personal level and the sports fraternity. This article will be looking at testosterone boosting effects on health and the relationship between these boosters and the sports fraternity.
Keen to learn more? The Manly Zone reviews testosterone boosters and is a great source of information on the subject.
How testosterone boosters are abused.
When they entered the market, the testosterone boosters were all about clinical use, the ability to help people who have less production of testosterone in their body. The medical application was just vast, with this compound being praised by many. However as time went by, people started getting even more crude ideas on how to use them. From sports to personal use, the testosterone use took a turn in a direction that most people didn’t even expect.
Personal abuse started with the boosting of strength for bodybuilding fanatics who wanted faster results and less workout time. The testosterone technically is either injected or taken orally. How testosterone boosters work in this sort of situation is quite easy. The body produces its own testosterone which is used to stimulate muscle growth and development. The increase in testosterone in the body increases the ability of the body to even produce more muscle tissue. This is where the problem is. Increased use of this method brings a lot of side effects which end up hurting the user. The abuse of these steroids hormone is more in bodybuilders, security personnel and even young teens looking to show off to others.
Testosterone boost and sports
Androgen boost therapy is prohibited in the sports scene. However there are always people out there who still look for a way to get an edge in the competitions. The world sports governing bodies through their respective anti doping agencies often take samples and tests to determine the eligibility of athletes in these competition. However even the sports greats have fallen victim of this banned substances and have in the process corrupted the respective sport and the values that sport stands for.
Side effects of usage of testosterone boosters
The most common ones include acnes and skin diseases. The toxicity that comes with the use of these chemicals brings with them liver diseases, and kidney failure. Strokes and heart diseases are also common especially of misused by old people or even general use without prescription. The psychological effects are even worse. From mood swings to metal breakdown and insanity, it’s a whole list. An individual could suffer from a couple of these conditions all at once which will automatically end in his demise in no time.
TIPS! Look around for free wood in your area. Businesses will have leftover pallets, and construction areas may have scrap wood they don’t need.
Whenever you’re thinking of cutting a piece of wood that’s narrow, don’t try to use your fingers to guide it. Instead, a long and thin piece of scrap wood should be used to push your piece through your saw. This helps you keep every finger, which are required for doing future woodworking.
TIPS! Safety comes first when using a table saw. When crosscutting, you need to set the cut’s length with a block that has been clamped on the fence.
Use tin snips to trim laminate for your projects. These snips make it simple to trim down the laminate to a perfect size. Getting a set of tin snips you’ll only use for laminate will keep your snips sharp.
TIPS! Use a stair gauge if you are looking for a circular saw guide. Typically, stair gauges are used to calibrate stair jack rises and runs.
Dry fit your project together before beginning to glue. If you don’t and then try to do adjustments, chances are you’ll create damage to your project. A dry fitting will give you some idea of where each component goes.
The one species for which the Indian River is most noted for and which is the most endangered is the West Indian Manatee or Sea Cow. Most manatees in the US live in the IRL’s northern half and this population is carefully monitored. Today the manatee population is momentarily stableHowever, the continued existence of the Manatee is a matter still much in doubt. The manatee’s chief nemesis is the propeller of the recreational powerboat.
Most Manatees bear scars from their encounters with powerboats. The problem for the future is Florida’s rapidly expanding human population. As the population of Florida increases so will the number of powerboats and also the number of Manatees killed or injured from their propellers. To save the Manatee the stopgap solution has been to restrict boat speeds on more and more of the IRL. This has finally led to certain areas being declared off limits to motorized boats of any kind. Unfortunately, every new restriction brings cries of foul from narrow-minded interests such as boat manufacturers, fish camp owners and some powerboat owners. The battle over the Manatee’s future continues….
Ultimately, the Manatee’s fate will be decided by how much the people of Florida are willing to give up to provide for it’s continued existence. I feel that education and experiencing the Manatee close up is the key. Almost everyone that sees a Manatee close up is deeply moved by the experience. The animal’s size and gentleness radiate an aura of serenity.
The Kayak provides an excellent means for seeing the Manatee in the wild. The quietness of a Kayak allows viewing the animals with out disturbing them. Remember though that it is a violation of state law to bother or touch manatees in any way. This includes actions coming from the most benevolent of intentions. When you see manatees don’t approach too closely. Let them come to you. They may be diffident or very friendly but it is their choice. So in summary, the IRL is probably the best place left on earth to see the Manatee in the wild.
There are many hazards for the Kayaker in the IRL. Unfortunately these hazards are not obvious to most Kayakers. The primary hazards for the Kayaker in the IRL are (in descending order of importance) Lightning, Stingrays, Alligators and Manatees.
Lightning kills more people in Florida than any other state. The most deaths in Florida occur in “Lightning Alley” a swath running through the central part of the peninsula. Unfortunately, most of the IRL is in this area. Summer thunderstorms are the cause of almost all lightning injuries and fatalities. These thunderstorms occur suddenly and their movement is unpredictable. Never ever try and guess where a thunderstorm is going. Remember the wind and lower cloud movement are not true indicators of the storms track When you hear thunder look for a shore where you can take shelter and don’t stray to far from it. Believe me it is better to be safe than sorry when dealing with lightning in Florida
Stingrays are extremely common on the flats of the IRL. Stepping directly on one can produce a nasty and very painful injury. Stingrays bury themselves almost completely in the sand and are hard to see even in clear water. The base of the Stingrays tail contains a detachable barbed mucous covered piece of cartilage i.e. The Stinger. This stinger is used by the Stingray to defend itself. When stepped on a Stingray will try and drive its stinger upward into the attacker (your foot) we locals call this being “rayed”. The stingray then flees leaving the stinger imbedded in the attacker. The stinger’s barbs make extracting it difficult and the mucous surrounding the stinger is a perfect meduim for bacteria, which if left untreated, makes an infection almost inevitable. The best protection against stingrays is simple, don’t step on them!
There is a dangerous myth that shuffling your feet, as walk will spook rays as you approach, DON’T YOU BELIEVE IT. I don’t know who came up with this gem but it wasn’t anybody that knew what they were talking about. Sure, some small rays will scoot when they feel you approach, but the bigger they are the less spooky they are. So look down as you wade before making each step. If you see one ray remember that they often run in schools. The 2nd best protection against Stingrays is to wear thick-soled wading shoes. By thick here I mean at least a half an inch (this excludes the very common and flimsy surf sox which are really no protection). Finally, if the worse happens and you are stung by a Stingray there is an antidote for most the harmfuls effects. The mucous which sheaves the stinger and causes most of the problems is made protein. A common product which dissolves this protein is Adolph’s Meat Tenderizer. Making a paste by using saltwater and the tenderizer powder and applying it to the wound will usually alleviate most symtoms within a half an hour. I always carry Aldoph’s in my kayak as a precaution against being “rayed”
Alligators are common in the IRL. The largest number of alligators in the IRL occurs inside Merritt Island National Wildlife refuge. This area includes Mosquito Lagoon and the Banana River Manatee Sanctuary. The Alligators in the Merritt Island refuge are adapted to saltwater and can grow quite large up to 14 feet in length and well over 600 lbs. These Alligators for the most part are non-aggressive and will retreat upon approach. However just as with stingrays the larger animals tend to stand their ground. The key dealing safely with Alligators is also the same as with Stingrays i.e. see them and avoid coming too close. To avoid coming too close you must recognize when a Alligator is being aggressive. Alligators can become aggressive for two fundamentally different reasons. The most common reason for aggressiveness is territorial behavior. This territorial behavior occurs mostly in the mating season of late spring and early summer. During this time male gators stake out mating areas.
If you violate the mating territory of a male gator it will make a threat display by raising its body out of the water, particularly its tail. If you see a gator doing this you should back off immediately. The only time I was attacked in a kayak was when I got in the middle of a territorial dispute between two gators. I was focused on avoiding one animal and did not see the other come up behind me. Fortunately, the only damage was a few tooth imprints in my kayak. The 2nd way gators can become aggressive and a threat to humans is when they associate humans with food. Notice that I did not say humans as food. Alligators will follow people because they think that they will get an easy meal. Many Alligators have picked off tired fish released by fisherman or have gotten a meal from discarded bait. When a small gator tags along with me I generally ignore it. Larger animals are (8ft and greater) are a different story. If I get a tag-along one of these I generally put the boat in high gear and paddle some distance away. Alligators will not follow you too far, since they are on a strict energy budget.
Manatees are only a hazard if you inadvertently spook one. The presence of Manatees is not always obvious since at rest they lie on the bottom and only surface to breathe every 3 to 5 minutes. This fact combined with the quietness of a kayak can lead to the kayaker passing directly over a manatee. The Manatee will spook when the shadow of the kayak passes over it. The result of spooking a 1000-pound Manatee in shallow water is frightening. I have had my kayak raised 45 degrees on end as the result of such an encounter. Needless to say you should avoid these encounters. The best way is to be aware of when you are near Manatees. You may hear Manatees breathing before you can see them. When you think you are near Manatees especially in shallow water slow down and wait for them to surface. Once you have located an animal’s position give it a wide berth and be aware there may be more than one Manatee in the immediate area.
The kayaker considering the IRL should as I have said before first decide what you want to see and do. Remember that the climate of the IRL is semitropical meaning short cool winters and long hot humid summers. Fall and spring are not really distinct seasons and in the discussion below I omit them.
The winter months are by and large more pleasant for most people. The winter is also probably the best time to see manatees and bird life. The Manatees tend to collect in warm water areas and are more easily viewed in numbers than in the summer. The winter also brings a huge influx of migrant birds swelling the already large number of year round species. I believe that the Audobon winter species count for Brevard and Indian River counties are consistently the highest in the U.S. Winter does however have one drawback: cold. Yes, believe or not Florida does get cold in the winter.
These cold air intrusions usually last only a day or two. However, because the IRL is so shallow even a short spell of cold temperatures will cool the water considerably. This cooling has both good and bad effects for those wishing to view the wildlife. The primary bad effect is that the rapid cooling of the shallow water drives many temperature sensitive species to warmer deeper water.
The water temperature in the upper sixties to lower 70s also makes entering the water uncomfortable for some. A good effect of colder water temperatures is the concentrating of Manatees in warm water areas. An example of this is the Florida Power electrical plant near Titusville. During cold snaps scores of Manatees are consistently drawn to the warm water discharge from the plant.
The summer in the IRL is long hot and humid. The constant comment “it’s not the heat but the humidity” is commonly heard from 1st time visitors. For the Kayaker the summer months offer the opportunity to see the IRL at its most biologically productive. During the summer fish literally team in the shallows. Schools of mullet seem to take over the grass flats. The mullet in fact can be used as an indicator of a grass flat since they swim on the surface their presence is highly visible and usually and indication of shallow water. Another species that is most plentiful in summer is the Redfish. Redfish are one of the top predators of the flats and in the IRL they grow very large, forty pound Redfish are common. It is an awesome spectacle to see a school of these giants feeding on crabs in 3 feet of water. The Redfish feed by what is known as “tailing” that is tilting their heads down to the bottom to root out blue crabs. This type of feeding causes their tails to protrude from the water. Schools of large Redfish tailing may be spotted from several hundred yards away. It is probably obvious from the above discussion that summer is also the best time for fishing. Kayak fishing is an increasingly popular sport in Florida. In fact certain areas of the IRL famous for their fishing are accessible only by kayak or canoe.
Kayaking in the summer months also means coping with heat. Because of the high humidity sweating will not cool the body as effectively as in will in drier climates. The point here is to not be fooled by the temperature alone. The heat index temperature is what is important and in Florida this will typically be much higher then the ambient air temperature. Finally, take all the water you will need. Even though Florida is highly developed there are large stretches Lagoon where no water is available on the shore. Specifically, if you are planning on touring Mosquito Lagoon or the Banana River Manatee Sanctuary inside Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge landfall is restricted or prohibited entirely.